What Is Considered A High Viral Load?

Can the coronavirus disease spread through sewage?

There is no evidence that the COVID-19 virus has been transmitted via sewerage systems with or without wastewater treatment..

How can programmes assure continued access to HIV services?

See full answerIt is important to assure continuous access to essential HIV prevention, testing and treatment services also where measurements of confinement are implemented within the public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic. While access to essential services should be maintained, adapted and evidence-based measures to reduce possible transmission should be considered and implemented. These include[12]:* Applying standard precautions for all patients (including ensuring that all patients cover their nose and mouth with a tissue or elbow when coughing or sneezing, offering a medical mask to patients with suspected COVID-19 infection while they are in waiting in the service, perform hand hygiene etc.)* Health care and outreach workers, as well as peer educators and clients should apply adapted hand hygiene measures* Ensuring triage, early recognition, and source control (isolating patients with suspected COVID-19 infection)* Ensure there is adequate ventilation in all areas in the healthcare facility* Spatial separation of at least 1 metre should ideally be maintained between all patients within all types of services* Cleaning and disinfection procedures should be followed consistently and correctly* Dispensing medicines (for treatment of HIV, TB and other chronic conditions such as opioid dependence) for longer periods allowing reduced frequency of patient visits* Consider reduction of services to the most critical ones (provision of essential treatment and prevention services; services such as counselling sessions may be reduced or adapted)Generally, vulnerable populations, including members of key populations, as well as homeless and/or displaced people may be at increased risk of infection – because of additional comorbidities impacting on their immune system, reduced ability to apply measures of confinement and social distancing, as well as generally limited access to health services. It is critical that services that reach these populations such as community-based services, drop-in centres and outreach services can continue providing life-saving prevention (distribution of condoms, needles and syringes), testing and treatment while securing safety of staff and clients. Services can be adapted according to above considerations where applicable.

Can coronavirus disease spread through raw food?

As a general rule, the consumption of raw or undercooked animal products should be avoided. Raw meat, raw milk or raw animal organs should be handled with care to avoid cross- contamination with uncooked foods.

Is coronavirus a bacteria or virus?

The new coronavirus is a respiratory virus which spreads primarily through droplets generated when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose. To protect yourself, clean your hands frequently with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water.

Can COVID-19 be transmitted through food?

There is currently no evidence that people can catch COVID-19 from food. The virus that causes COVID-19 can be killed at temperatures similar to that of other known viruses and bacteria found in food.

What food should you avoid during COVID-19?

• When cooking and preparing food, limit the amount of salt and high-sodium condiments (e.g. soy sauce and fish sauce). • Limit your daily salt intake to less than 5 g (approximately 1 teaspoon), and use iodized salt. • Avoid foods (e.g. snacks) that are high in salt and sugar. • Limit your intake of soft drinks or sodas and other drinks that are high in sugar (e.g. fruit juices, fruit juice concentrates and syrups, flavoured milks and yogurt drinks).• Choose fresh fruits instead of sweet snacks such as cookies, cakes and chocolate.

Can the coronavirus spread via feces?

There is some evidence that COVID-19 infection may lead to intestinal infection and be present in faeces. However, to date only one study has cultured the COVID-19 virus from a single stool specimen. There have been no reports of faecal−oral transmission of the COVID-19 virus to date.

Are smokers at higher risk of contracting the coronavirus disease?

Smoking any kind of tobacco reduces lung capacity and increases the risk of many respiratory infections and can increase the severity of respiratory diseases. COVID-19 is an infectious disease that primarily attacks the lungs. Smoking impairs lung function making it harder for the body to fight off coronaviruses and other respiratory diseases. Available research suggests that smokers are at higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 outcomes and death.

Are HIV patients at high risk of contracting COVID-19?

At present there is no evidence that the risk of infection or complications of COVID-19 is different among people living with HIV who are clinically and immunologically stable on antiretroviral treatment when compared with the general population. Some people living with HIV may have known risk factors for COVID-19 complications, such as diabetes, hypertension and other noncommunicable diseases and as such may have increased risk of COVID-19 unrelated to HIV.

Can antiretrovirals be used to treat COVID-19?

See full answerSeveral studies have suggested that patients infected with the virus causing COVID-19, and the related coronavirus infections (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) had good clinical outcomes, with almost all cases recovering fully. In some cases, patients were given an antiretroviral drug: lopinavir boosted with ritonavir (LPV/r). These studies were mostly carried out in HIV-negative individuals.It is important to note that these studies using LPV/r had important limitations. The studies were small, timing, duration and dosing for treatment were varied and most patients received co-interventions/co-treatments which may have contributed to the reported outcomes.While the evidence of benefit of using antiretrovirals to treat coronavirus infections is of very low certainty, serious side effects were rare. Among people living with HIV, the routine use of LPV/r as treatment for HIV is associated with several side effects of moderate severity. However, as the duration of treatment in patients with coronavirus infections was generally limited to a few weeks, these occurrences can be expected to be low or less than that reported from routine use.

What studies on treatment and prevention of COVID-19 with antiretrovirals are being planned?

Several randomized trials are planned to assess the safety and efficacy of using antiretroviral drugs – mainly LPV/r – for treating COVID-19, in combination with other drugs. Results are expected from mid-2020 onwards.

How dangerous is COVID-19?

Although for most people COVID-19 causes only mild illness, it can make some people very ill. More rarely, the disease can be fatal. Older people, and those with pre- existing medical conditions (such as high blood pressure, heart problems or diabetes) appear to be more vulnerable.

Who is most at risk for COVID-19?

The COVID-19 virus infects people of all ages. However, evidence to date suggests that two groups of people are at a higher risk of getting severe COVID-19 disease. These are older people; and those with underlying medical conditions. WHO emphasizes that all must protect themselves from COVID-19 in order to protect others.

Can drinking alcohol help in preventing COVID-19?

Alcohol does not protect against COVID-19; access should be restricted during lockdown.

Does heat prevent COVID-19?

FACT: Exposing yourself to the sun or temperatures higher than 25°C DOES NOT protect you from COVID-19. You can catch COVID-19, no matter how sunny or hot the weather is. Countries with hot weather have reported cases of COVID-19.

Can the coronavirus disease be transmitted in hot or humid climates?

From the evidence so far, the COVID-19 virus can be transmitted in ALL AREAS, including areas with hot and humid weather. Regardless of climate, adopt protective measures if you live in, or travel to an area reporting COVID-19. The best way to protect yourself against COVID-19 is by frequently cleaning your hands. By doing this you eliminate viruses that may be on your hands and avoid infection that could occur by then touching your eyes, mouth, and nose.

Is the coronavirus disease a pandemic?

COVID-19 can be characterized as a pandemic. This is due to the rapid increase in the number of cases outside China over the past 2 weeks that has affected a growing number of countries.

What happens when you get the coronavirus disease?

People with COVID-19 generally develop signs and symptoms, including mild respiratory symptoms and fever, on an average of 5-6 days after infection (mean incubation period 5-6 days, range 1-14 days). Most people infected with COVID-19 virus have mild disease and recover.

What is the recovery time for the coronavirus disease?

Using available preliminary data, the median time from onset to clinical recovery for mild cases is approximately 2 weeks and is 3-6 weeks for patients with severe or critical disease.

Can COVID-19 be transmitted through feces or urine?

SARS-CoV-2 RNA has also been detected in other biological samples, including the urine and feces of some patients. One study found viable SARS-CoV-2 in the urine of one patient. Three studies have cultured SARS-CoV-2 from stool specimens. To date, however, there have been no published reports of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through feces or urine.

What should I do if I feel unwell during the COVID-19 pandemic?

See full answer• Know the full range of symptoms of COVID-19. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, and tiredness. Other symptoms that are less common and may affect some patients include loss of taste or smell, aches and pains, headache, sore throat, nasal congestion, red eyes, diarrhoea, or a skin rash.• Stay home and self-isolate even if you have minor symptoms such as cough, headache, mild fever, until you recover. Call your health care provider or hotline for advice. Have someone bring you supplies. If you need to leave your house or have someone near you, wear a medical mask to avoid infecting others.• If you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately. Call by telephone first, if you can and follow the directions of your local health authority.• Keep up to date on the latest information from trusted sources, such as WHO or your local and national health authorities.